Neutrophils are specialized cells of the early innate immune response that require constant replenishment from proliferative bone marrow (BM) precursors due to their short half-life. While it is well established that neutrophils are derived from the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP), the differentiation pathways from GMP to functional mature neutrophils are poorly defined. A long-standing question in the field of neutrophil research is whether a distinct subset of these cells truly exists, or different populations are merely a manifestation of the neutrophil maturation/polarization state. In comparison to other myeloid cell types such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, lineage tracing experiments have been performed extensively to delineate distinct subsets of these cells; very little has been done for neutrophils. This talk will provide an overview of recent developments on this topic and discuss how in-depth analysis of physiological and pathological granulopoiesis by advanced –omics and multiparametric technologies can contribute to better understanding neutrophil subsets discover new functions.