The Hippo pathway in cell growth, organ size, and Tumorigenesis

The Hippo pathway is crucial in organ size control and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Core components of the Hippo pathway include the protein kinases of MST1/2, MAP4Ks, LATS1/2, the transcription co-activators YAP/TAZ and their DNA binding partners TEADs. LATS phosphorylates YAP/TAZ to promote cytoplasmic localization and degradation, thereby inhibiting YAP/TAZ and cell growth. The Hippo pathway is regulated by a wide range of signals, including cell density, GPCR, cellular energy levels, and mechanical cues. We recently discovered that TEAD shuttles to cytoplasm in a Hippo independent manner. Moreover, the Hippo pathway also plays a critical role in suppressing cancer immunity. The emerging role of the Hippo pathway in tumorigenesis suggests potential therapeutic value of targeting this pathway for cancer treatment.