The theory of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) is introduced and epistemological questions raised. To what extent does a statistically significant result in an RCT permit a causal inference? Fallacies of statistical inference are discussed as is the relationship between
causal inference from RCTs and Inference to the Best Explanation.
Elwood, M. (2007) Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials OUP. Chapter 1, chapter 7, part 1,
Bland, M. (2000) An Introduction to Medical Statistics OUP. Chapter 2, chapter 9.