After more than two decades of trying the European Union, is seeking in the proposed fourth Railway Package to ensure that European Railways are fully competitive in all their forms of operation, including inter-modally and intra-modally across the “Single European Railway Area” (SERA). However, the problem with the railways is that for the last 40 years railways have been essentially “flatlining” in both the passenger and freight sectors. The changes seen in the United States after the liberalisation of the Staggers Act 1980 have not yet been repeated in Europe. Europe has restructured its railways such that infrastructure is separated from operations thus allowing new entrants into the market especially in freight (since 2007, International passenger since 2012 and domestic passenger from 2019 onwards). This presentation outlines how a more competitive railway market in Europe could emerge over the next few years.