‘The Carmen of London and Stereotypes of the Labouring Poor’

I.W. Archer, The Pursuit of Stability: Social Relations in Elizabethan London (1991), ch. 4;

D. Woodward, Men at Work: Labourers and Building Craftsmen in the Towns of Northern England, 1450-1750 (1995);

J.M. Fewster, The Keelmen of Newcastle.Labour Organisation and Conflict in the North-East Coal Industry, 1600-1830 (2011), intro and ch 1.