Vaccine research and development activities at Oxford have expanded considerably in recent years to form one of the largest university-based translational research programmes anywhere. This encompasses a large set of multi-disciplinary activities centred on the Jenner Institute. Several key vaccine technologies have been identified and championed by Oxford researchers leading to the clinical development of leading vaccine candidates against malaria, HIV, tuberculosis, pandemic influenza and other globally significant diseases. Development of new T cell inducing vaccines has recently been extended to exploring therapeutic efficacy in several areas. Another new frontier is the development of candidate vaccines against chronic inflammatory diseases. Building on Oxford’s rapid response to the Ebola outbreak in 2014, a range of new non-commercial vaccines against outbreak pathogens are being developed. In parallel, new human genetic analyses are yielding insights into the causes of inter-individual variability in vaccine responses. I will overview some of these activities in the Institute and select examples, including malaria and cancer vaccines, to illustrate recent progress.