The encounter of philosophical, theological, and biological views on anthropogenesis inspired the most emotional reactions to evolutionary theory and posed a considerable challenge to systematic and philosophical theology. The history of the conversation between scientific and religious worldviews on the topic of hominization is thus long and complicated. In my presentation I will discuss two issues. Firstly, I will delineate the contemporary Thomistic approach to the question of the origin of our species and defend it as theologically more accurate and precise than the most prevalent version of the semi-naturalistic position that is favored and repeated by many theologians and accepted in the official statements of the Magisterium of the Catholic Church. Secondly, I will address the complex debate on mono- versus polygenism.