In eukaryotic cycling cells, two centrioles, the microtubule (MT)-based nano cylinders, with the peri-centriolar matrix (PCM) form a centrosome. The centriole biogenesis generally occurs once per cell cycle to tightly regulate its number. After cells exist cell cycle, these nano-cylinders can template the skeleton of cilia, also called sensing hairs and propeller of cells. Given that these nanomachines have critical sensing, motility and cytoskeleton-organising functions, their alteration/deregulation causes several human diseases, such as cancer (occurs is 1 in 3 individuals worldwide) and ciliopathies (frequency is >1:1000 people in Europe and America). Strikingly, in the later diseases, the mutations affect either all or specific tissue(s) (e.g., eye, kidney and sperm) at various ages of our life, often showing defects similar to ageing pathologies.
I will talk about the new mechanisms on how the number and diversity of centrosome-cilia are regulated in time and space in animal cells, including the fruit fly. Subsequently, I will discuss to highlight how these findings would immensely help not only better understand these nano-organelles´ evolution and biology, but also the associated-human disorders.