More than half the world’s population now lives in urban areas, where there remain large health inequalities between and within cities. Many of these health risks are environmental, with the most vulnerable at greatest exposure to environmental health risks. Dr Alison Smith, Senior Research Associate at the Environmental Change Institute, Dr Anant Jani, Honorary Research Fellow Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, and Sam Bickersteth, Executive Director of Rockefeller Foundation Economic Council on Planetary Health, will be discussing these issues. We ask why these inequalities emerge and persist, even when recognised by governments. Looking to the future, we’ll also look at predicted trends in inequality and environmental health risks in an increasingly urbanised world.