Advances in functional brain imaging suggest that distinct types of brain circuit dysfunctions may underlie depression and anxiety disorders. Yet, we lack a method for quantifying clinical brain circuit metrics in a subject-level manner to facilitate actionable decisions. To make progress toward this goal, we leveraged multiple samples to develop and test a subject-level image system suitable for clinical applications. Using data from primary and generalizability samples of depression and anxiety, we demonstrate that dysfunctions in specific circuits at rest and during task predict distinct clinical profiles of symptoms and functional outcomes. Circuit dysfunction metrics also distinguish response to antidepressant and behavioral interventions in an independent sample. These findings offer a foundation for deploying standardized circuit assessments across research groups, trials, and clinics.