Inequality is an important and seemingly inevitable aspect of the human society. Various manifestations of inequality can be derived from the concept of entropy in statistical physics. In a stylised model of monetary economy, with a constrained money supply implicitly reflecting constrained resources, the probability distribution of money among the agents converges to the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs law due to entropy maximisation. Our empirical data analysis shows that income distributions in the USA, European Union, and other countries exhibit a well-defined two-class structure. The majority of the population (about 97%) belongs to the lower class characterised by the exponential (“thermal”) distribution, which we recently observed in the data for 67 countries around the world. In contrast, the upper class (about 3% of the population) is characterised by the Pareto power-law (“superthermal”) distribution, and its share of the total income expands and contracts dramatically during booms and busts in financial markets. Globally, energy consumption (and CO2 emissions) per capita around the world shows decreasing inequality in the last 30 years and convergence toward the exponential probability distribution, as expected from the maximal entropy principle.

**Date**: 16 June 2020, 15:00 (Tuesday, 8th week, Trinity 2020)**Venue**: Venue to be announced**Speakers**: Speaker to be announced**Organising department**: Physics (Central)**Organiser**: Helen Smith (University of Oxford)**Organiser contact email address**: helen.smith@physics.ox.ac.uk**Host**: Prof Siddharth Parameswaran (University of Oxford)**Topics**:**Booking required?**: Required**Booking email**: eahod@physics.ox.ac.uk**Cost**: FOC**Audience**: All Ox Uni Academics plus invited academics from external institutions- Editor: Helen Smith