Rule of law and effective government are highly dependent on the quality of the institutions created to enforce it. During EU accession negotiations, much effort was put into establishing such institutions, with the best possible legislative framework to underpin them. Experience since accession has shown that much also depends on other factors – the people who lead them; their capacity and those of their institutions to resist the pressure of vested interests; elements of the surrounding political and security environment, etc. This panel will look at Romania’s experience in this respect – how successful are the good institutions and why, and is there a risk that even the good ones can decline or be misused? Recent events in Romania have demonstrated clearly some of the problems that continue.