Spatial scales of homeostatic plasticity in mouse visual cortex

Homeostatic regulation of neuronal activity is critical for preventing extreme activity levels, such as those that occur during epilepsy, and previous work has indicated that this regulation occurs at the level of individual neurons. We investigated the spatial scale of homeostatic regulation of neuronal activity in the mouse visual cortex using chronic in vivo two-photon imaging of both structure and function, using genetically encoded calcium indicators in layer 2/3 and 5 neurons following sensory deprivation via monocular enucleation. We found evidence for homeostatic regulation of activity in subnetworks of cells, where subsets of cells that were co-active prior to deprivation and were more likely recover their activity together. These data suggest a role for the network in homeostatic plasticity. Furthermore, we also found evidence for the implementation of homeostatic mechanisms within individual dendritic branches. Together, these data suggest that homeostatic plasticity is implemented at numerous spatial scales, depending on the activity profiles following sensory deprivation.