Chemistry around 1900 was queen of the sciences. Yet recent decades have seen professional history of science move away from modern chemistry – and especially the discipline of organic chemistry – as though there were no more to say about it. In fact, nothing could be further from the truth. The history of nineteenth-century organic chemistry remains locked in history of ideas, and it does justice neither to the actors nor their accomplishments as a result. Misleading to chemists as practitioners, and especially to young chemists embarking on research careers, existing history and historiography cannot explain the rise of organic chemistry. As chemist, historian, and educator, my mission is to re-write the history of organic chemistry, elucidating what nineteenth-century chemists knew and how they worked in ways that re-engage present-day practitioners, and showcase the power of historical methodology to illuminate technical knowledge.