Tract-tracing studies in non-human primates indicate that different subregions of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) are connected with multiple brain regions. However, no clear framework defining the distributed anatomy associated with the human MTL exists. This gap in knowledge originates in notoriously low MRI data quality in the anterior human MTL and in group-level blurring of idiosyncratic anatomy between adjacent brain regions comprising the MTL. To overcome these challenges, we intensively scanned four human individuals and collected whole-brain data with unprecedented MTL signal quality that allowed us to explore in detail the cortical networks associated with MTL subregions within each individual. In this talk, I will present these recent results and discuss their implications on examining the evolutionary trajectory of the MTL connectivity across species.