Deep Learning is a collective term comprising applications of artificial neural networks (ANNs) with many layers to complex tasks by learning from data. The current surge of interest in Deep Learning has only become possible by the availability of (1) new techniques for training multi-layered ANNs, (2) large corpora of training data, and (3) relatively cheap high-performance computing (graphical processing units; GPUs). After a short introduction to the necessary machine learning basics, this seminar talk gives an overview of deep learning. We will highlight current successes in a variety of application fields, open issues, and potential future directions. Special emphasis will be given to recent applications in the life science domain.