Cognitive performance relies on the entrainment of neuronal networks in oscillatory patterns of electrical activity, as exemplified in the case of functional interplay between the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Coupling of neuronal networks in oscillatory rhythms emerges early during development. However, the contribution of coordinated activity for the maturation of neuronal networks remains largely unknown. The talk will introduce the mechanisms controlling the development of structural and functional coupling within prefrontal-hippocampal networks of rodents. Moreover, the dysfunction within hippocampal-prefrontal networks, switching from neonatal hypo- to juvenile hyper-coupling, will be characterized as a possible mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric disorders.