Turkey is required to hold presidential and parliamentary elections no later than June 2023. Barring any unexpected developments, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan could very well remain in office. As the country’s longest serving leader, Erdogan has cast a long shadow on the country’s economic, social and political development. Until 2010, Erdogan was exemplified as a transformational leader who significantly raised per-capita incomes, placing Turkey on the path to full accession to the European Union (EU) and a “model” country for regional powers emerging out of the Arab uprisings. Contrastingly, beginning with the Gezi protests of 2013, and particularly following the coup attempt of July 2016, Erdogan centralized political power-with an aim to preserve his regime, and transformed Turkey into an authoritarian state, where the rule of law has been severely compromised, and democratic rule under threat. At present, although Erdogan’s position as President remains secure, he may also faces the potential of being voted out of power. The panel will focus on discussing what awaits Turkey in the event that Erdogan is not re-elected President.