Ambitious climate goals require large-scale CO2 emissions reductions and removal from the atmosphere. Utilising CO2 to produce economically valuable products might reduce the net costs of emission reductions and removals. This talk assesses the potential scale and cost of ten different utilisation pathways. We will consider pathways using CO2 in construction, chemicals and fuels, which have significant potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and limited potential for net CO2 removals from atmosphere. We will also review pathways that enhance CO2 uptake on land, increasing agricultural output and removing CO2 at scale over the medium-term. All pathways considered could scale to over 0.5 Gt CO2 utilisation annually.