Primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is involved in extracting and interpreting information gathered through our sense of touch, but its precise functions and how they are accomplished remain poorly understood. One clue is that, like all areas of cortex, S1 is organized in layers of interconnected microcircuits. Using single unit electrophysiology and volumetric calcium imaging during quantitative behavior in head-fixed mice, we have mapped how tactile representations of timing, place, and shape are distributed across layers and cell-types of S1. We have also identified which aspects of these representations reorganize during learning of skilled tactile behaviors. Our work suggests circuit implementations of how sensory and motor information are combined across layers of S1 to generate tactile perception of our surroundings.